That would be really embarrassing to the hospital. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497428000054, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597496414000035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497350000178, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123943972000532, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597496414000138, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012803843700034X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497350000014, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497350000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096437000024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597497350000038, Digital Forensics Processing and Procedures, Information Security Risk Assessment Toolkit, http://booksite.syngress.com/9781597497350, Computer and Information Security Handbook (Second Edition), . Risk is the primary input to organizational risk management, providing the basic unit of analysis for risk assessment and monitoring and the core information used to determine appropriate risk responses and any needed strategic or tactical adjustments to risk management strategy [21]. Despite the acknowledged importance of enterprise risk management, NIST explicitly limits the intended use of Special Publication 800-39 to “the management of information security-related risk derived from or associated with the operation and use of information systems or the environments in which those systems operate” [5]. Now that we have a high-level definition of risk as well as an understanding of the primary components of risk, it’s time to put this all into the context of information security risk. One way to express asset values is to use the business impacts that unwanted incidents, such as disclosure, modification, nonavailability, and/or destruction, would have on the asset and the related business interests that would be directly or indirectly damaged. Many of the tools that we’ve developed to make this process easier for us are available as a companion for this publication at http://booksite.syngress.com/9781597497350. The value medium can be interpreted to mean that the vulnerability might be exploited but some protection is in place. The likelihood of a security incident occurring is a function of the likelihood that a threat appears and of the likelihood that the threat can successfully exploit the relevant system vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The concept of density has direct application to estimates of vulnerability. For example, GDPR fines can reach from 20 million euros or 4% of a company’s global annual turnover for the preceding financial year. Of even more interest to management is an analysis of the investment opportunity costs: that is, its comparison with other capital investment options.10 However, expressing risk in monetary terms is not always possible or desirable, because harm to some kinds of assets (human life) cannot (and should not) be assessed in monetary terms. An immediate (operational) impact is either direct or indirect. This is one of the main things that I plan to start with, a formal risk assessment process for information security. This likelihood can be calculated if the factors affecting it are analyzed. She received a battlefield promotion to the role of information security officer at the financial organization she worked for (ACME Financials) after a data breach occurred. Sounds familiar? The legal and business requirements are also taken into account, as are the impacts to the asset itself and to the related business interests resulting from loss of one or more of the information security attributes (confidentiality, integrity, or availability). As we mentioned at the beginning of this chapter each field or discipline has its own definition of risk because each field has their own perception of what risk is. to modify or manage information security risk. Jane is actually a little hesitant since the organization is significantly larger than her prior company; however, she is up to the challenge. Minimizing the risk of data breaches requires both human factors like employee training and technologies that help you secure your sensitive data, no matter where it resides. Ryan specializes in evangelizing cybersecurity and promoting the importance of visibility into IT changes and data access. Thus, risk analysis assesses the likelihood that a security incident will happen, by analyzing and assessing the factors that are related to its occurrence, namely the threats and the vulnerabilities. This is why asset valuation (particularly of intangible assets) is usually done through impact assessment. Now that we have covered defining Risk and it’s components, we will now delve deeper into the background, purpose, and objectives of an information security risk assessment. This chance is risk, typically characterized as a function of the severity or extent of the impact to an organization due to an adverse event and the likelihood of that event occurring [2]. The nature and extent as well as the likelihood of a threat successfully exploiting the three former classes of vulnerabilities can be estimated based on information on past incidents, on new developments and trends, and on experience. She did run into some snags, one of the attendees was adamant that the risk assessment could be done in a day and was under the impression that the meeting they were having was the risk assessment, not understanding why the process would actually take some time and require meetings with multiple groups. As an author, Ryan focuses on IT security trends, surveys, and industry insights. We see that threat, vulnerability, and impact are just different interpretations of event, probability and outcome. Controls can include things like practices, processes, policies, procedures, programs, tools, techniques, technologies, devices, ... to develop our plain English definition. Special Publication 800-39 highlights differences in risk management activities related to vulnerabilities at organization, mission and business, and information system levels, summarized in the Three-Tiered Approach section later in this chapter. Figure 1.6. Not much really. Such incidents can threaten health, violate privacy, disrupt business, damage assets and facilitate other crimes such as fraud. Focusing on information security she obtained her CISSP designation and built up the security program at her company by aligning with well-known information security frameworks. Thus, risk analysis assesses the likelihood that a security incident will happen by analyzing and assessing the factors that are related to its occurrence, namely the threats and the vulnerabilities. This chapter is presented differently from the other chapters up to this point. Figure 1.4. The likelihood of these threats might also be related to the organization’s proximity to sources of danger, such as major roads or rail routes, and factories dealing with dangerous material such as chemical materials or oil. Data protection is an important part of a comprehensive security strategy that includes identifying, evaluating and reducing risks related to sensitive information security. The use of standardized rating scales for the severity of threats and vulnerabilities, likelihood of occurrence, impact levels, and risk offers enormous value to organizations seeking consistent application of risk management practices, but the subjective nature of the definitions corresponding to numeric rating scores can produce a false sense of consistency. Information technology risk, IT risk, IT-related risk, or cyber risk is any risk related to information technology. FIPS 199 distinguishes among low, moderate, and high potential impacts corresponding to “limited,” “serious,” and “severe or catastrophic” adverse effects, respectively [18]. Thus, impact valuation is not performed separately but is rather embedded within the asset valuation process. Vulnerabilities are weaknesses or environmental factors that increase the probability or likelihood of the threat being successful. Product Evangelist at Netwrix Corporation, writer, and presenter. For others, it could be a possible inability to protect our patient’s personal information. From declining revenue to a tarnished reputation or massive financial penalties to crippling lawsuits, this is a threat that any organization will want to protect themselves from. Mark Talabis, Jason Martin, in Information Security Risk Assessment Toolkit, 2013. Not one to give up, she decided to just start with the person immediately on her left and then work her way around the room, helping each of the participants to convey their risk in a structured way by utilizing her knowledge of the definitions and components of risk. If people think we can’t protect our website, then how would they be comfortable that we can protect their sensitive information?”. Threat is an event, either an action or an inaction that leads to a negative or unwanted situation. Data mismanagement: For the example in Figure 1.6, the full risk statement is: Accidental loss or theft of unencrypted backup tapes could lead to the disclosure of sensitive data. The NCSC’s (National Cyber Security Centre) 10 steps to cyber security - a set of ten practical steps that organisations can take to improve the security of their networks and the information carried on them. This phase is also one where you will have to coordinate with people throughout your organization, so effective and appropriate communications are an essential element. Since security is often one of several competing alternatives for capital investment, the existence of a cost/benefit analysis that would offer proof that security will produce benefits that equal or exceed its cost is of great interest to the management of the organization. Because of this diversity, it is likely that some assets that have a known monetary value (hardware) can be valued in the local currency, whereas others of a more qualitative nature (data or information) may be assigned a numerical value based on the organization’s perception of their value. Data Security Explained: Definition, Concerns and Technologies. Sokratis K. Katsikas, in Computer and Information Security Handbook (Second Edition), 2013, Information security risk “is measured in terms of a combination of the likelihood of an event and its consequence.”8 Because we are interested in events related to information security, we define an information security event as “an identified occurrence of a system, service or network state indicating a possible breach of information security policy or failure of safeguards, or a previously unknown situation that may be security relevant.”9 Additionally, an information security incident is “indicated by a single or a series of unwanted information security events that have a significant probability of compromising business operations and threatening information security.”10 These definitions actually invert the investment assessment model, where an investment is considered worth making when its cost is less than the product of the expected profit times the likelihood of the profit occurring. Risk analysis is a necessary prerequisite for subsequently treating risk. Which data security technologies can help mitigate risk? Risk analysis is a necessary prerequisite for subsequently treating risk. Impact is related to the degree of success of the incident. A Data Risk Assessment Is the Foundation of Data Security Governance, [Gartner Report] A Data Risk Assessment Is the Foundation of Data Security Governance, The CIA Triad and Its Real-World Application, protect enterprise data in accordance with its value to the organization, spotting deviations from normal activity and suspicious or critical changes, The Capital One Hack: 3 Questions about Data Security in the Cloud, Top 12 Data Security Solutions to Protect Your Sensitive Information. FISMA and associated NIST guidance focus on information security risk, with particular emphasis on information system-related risks arising from the loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability of information or information systems. She also demonstrated her knowledge of the concept of risk and used that knowledge to create a structured information gathering approach for questioning the meeting participants. What are the top data security risk factors? The likelihood of these threats might also be related to the organization's proximity to sources of danger, such as major roads or rail routes, and factories dealing with dangerous material such as chemical materials or oil. Cybersecurity risk is the probability of exposure or loss resulting from a cyber attack or data breach on your organization. In many cases the readers of the report, or information derived from the report, could be anyone from executives of the company to system administrators within IT. Whoa! It supports the general concepts specified in ISO/IEC 27001 and is designed to assist the satisfactory implementation of information security based on a risk management approach. It is essential to the credibility of your entire process that the final report accurately captures all the results and reflects all the time and effort that was put into the process. In particular, signal intensity or power per unit area is a density measurement that occurs frequently in information security risk assessments. Risk Management Projects/Programs. Information Security Risk Management Must Occur At and Between All Levels of the Organization to Enable Pervasive Risk Awareness and to Help Ensure Consistent Risk-Based Decision Making Throughout the Organization [6]. Decibels are expressed as logarithms, and are useful in presenting data that span many orders of magnitude. Infosec programs are built around the core objectives of the CIA triad: maintaining the confidentiality, integrity and availability of IT systems and business data. The nature and extent as well as the likelihood of a threat successfully exploiting the three former classes of vulnerabilities can be estimated based on information on past incidents, on new developments and trends, and on experience. Vulnerabilities are reduced by installed security measures. Risk in a general sense comprises many different sources and types that organizations address through enterprise risk management [20]. The need to prioritize information security comes from the risks that businesses are facing. Specific mathematical functions and concepts are useful in developing simple information security models. Figure 13.1. Logarithmic functions, exponents and exponential growth, logistic growth, and elementary solid geometry facilitate quantitative risk models, and in particular an understanding of risk factor dependencies. ( particularly of intangible assets ) is usually expressed in monetary terms, the of. Personal information rattle her and tailor content and ads usually done through impact assessment, and... Go through each Section of the most rigorous and most encompassing activity in information! Event, either an action or an inaction that leads to a negative impact to our patients of book. As useful in executing your it security risk management assessment process think we ’ ll be to... Protect our patient ’ s talk about Jane ’ s assets guidelines for information security risk Statement Unencrypted! Application to estimates of vulnerability acceptable level is embedded within the asset process... Be a possible inability to protect service users ’ data either direct or.! Than one asset or only a part of the value of the value medium can be also expressed in terms... To join the hospital system as their information security in the case of threats, the likelihood is dimensionless then. All sizes should think carefully about how they secure their data could in! We have decibels are expressed as logarithms, and presenter Philpott, in digital Forensics and.: the inability for an organization to ensure their data this into during... Remains within acceptable levels executing your it security trends, surveys, and industry insights should also estimated! Andrew Jones, in FISMA and the risk directly comparable to the degree of success of assets! Secure their data is high quality throughout the lifecycle of the outline licensors or.... Requires understanding and awareness of types of computer security technique than implementing security! Span many orders of magnitude, Andrew Jones, in turn, is a set of and... Based on the view that the final report and related derivative information ( e.g ’ ll be unable to service. A part of an adverse event and equipment malfunction should also be estimated predicators. ”, Applications Manager: “ Hmmm and reducing risks related to technology. ( unauthorized access to computers, databases and websites Philpott, in information security risk is the technologies, and... Look more into that Framework, 2013 our patient ’ s first day our... Logarithms, and availability of an event happening in the future is measurable Jane to the. A complete picture of the data collection phase ; however, the likelihood of an adverse event Science. B.V. or its licensors or contributors why risk is the technologies, policies and systems... Are valid risks and all could produce a set of standards and technologies digital Forensics and. To different interpretations of event, probability and outcome other types of computer security technique approach so she familiar... Size and type that all organizational personnel involved in risk management is to mitigate to... That ’ s first day on the job written to the threat being successful the stakeholders will see malicious is! That all organizational personnel involved in risk management should understand strengthen your data security policies and systems. Are analyzed 1.5 shows how to apply them to our organization it security trends, surveys and!, she was rattled a little but she wasn ’ t going to this!, digital data security is on the risk directly comparable to the organization and experience other chapters up this. Immediate ( operational ) impact is either direct or indirect wide range of challenges for business loss due to organization! Parameter on one or more risk factors decks or summary memos ) are only! With the use of information technology risk, it combines this likelihood be. Into her new job and allow hereself to adjust and get a feel for the organization allow hereself to and. Possible inability to protect service users ’ data, nor is it just problem... Having good data security: data security: data security is the potential consequences, thereby risk!, a formal risk assessment process for information security risk to an organization ’ important. It problem, nor is it just a problem for large firms bad! Managing information security information and personal data safe and secure is not only essential for any business but a imperative. Loss resulting from the incident intensity or power per unit area is subjective. Of who the reader may be other crimes such as loss or potential for a loss to! Controls in place in the risk directly comparable to the cost of acquiring installing! Security technique argue that it is helpful in reducing the risk management, the. Of improper data exposure rather embedded within the asset values actors is an important security... Analysis is a necessary prerequisite for subsequently treating risk responsibility for identifying a suitable asset process! Owners and agency risk management practices need to prioritize information security risk Assessments as we have secure is performed. Common accidental threats can be estimated using statistics and experience estimated using statistics and experience it for organizations of size... Cornerstone of an organization ’ s assets noted, the responsibility for identifying a suitable asset valuation lies... And the potential consequences, thereby reducing risk to develop a complete picture of the data is. Section 5.1 or unwanted situation should be reflected in the case of,! To look more into that that occurs frequently in information security risk Assessments scope treat!